Bosnia and Herzegovina (abbreviation BiH) is the state in the southeastern part of Europe, located in the west of the Balkan Peninsula. From the north, west, and southwest it borders with Croatia and from the east with Serbia, while in the southeast borders with Montenegro.
Capital and the biggest city of the country is Sarajevo. It became independent on March 1, 1992, following the decision of BH citizens in a referendum on self-determination. According to international estimates in 2006, the population was 4,498,976, and the results of 2013 census is 3,531,159.
The area of Bosnia and Herzegovina is constantly inhabited since the Neolithic period, since there were settlements of Celtic and Illyrian civilization. Culturally, politically, and socially, it is one of the historically richest countries in the region; the Slavic peoples who still inhabit the area since 6th – 9th century first inhabited it. The first independent Banat in the region was established on its territory, in the early 12th century, and the people who are called “good Bosnians“ (dobri Bošnjani) established it.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally known for its natural beauty and cultural heritage, its cuisine, eclectic and unique music, architecture and its festivals, some of which are among the largest and most respected of its kind in Southeast Europe.
It is a potential candidate for membership in the European Union and candidate for NATO membership from April 2010, when it signed a Membership Action Plan at the summit in Tallinn. In addition, Bosnia and Herzegovina is a member and associate member of many international organizations: the Council of Europe since April 2002, member and founder of the Mediterranean Union since its establishment in July 2008, the Organization for European Security and Cooperation (OSCE), CEFTA , an observer in the Organization of the Islamic conference (OIC) and others. It is a coastal country, because in the south of its territory, in Neum has an exit to the Adriatic Sea.